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What vitamins are there? Encyclopedia of Vitamins

Vitamins that says its name (vita = life) are life-sustaining substances. Without them we would be viable only for a short time. A long-term lack of just one of the 13 vitamins can cause serious physical and psychological disorders. However, an overdose may lead to severe complications. But do not worry: Overdoses are virtually impossible with the food, they can only have the excessive intake come about of vitamin supplements.vitamins

Vitamins – variety it is important

Since our bodies can not manufacture them itself vitamins, we must proceed with the food. Some vitamins we found mainly in fruits and vegetables, others are mainly contain in meat, fish or dairy products. That’s why a varied diet the nuts and bolts for an optimal supply with essential tiny plants.

Fat-soluble or water-soluble

Vitamins are divided according to their solubility in fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins. The fat-soluble vitamins, the body can absorb only in combination with fat. These include vitamins A, D, E and K. The water-soluble vitamins include all the B complex (B1, B2, B6, B12), niacin, pantothenic acid, folic acid, biotin and vitamin C.

Fat-soluble vitamins

Vitamin Function / Defect / Particularities Recommended daily intake The main sources
A (Retinol) Important for vision, reproduction and skin. 0.8-1.0 mg
Pregnant 1.1mg
Breastfeeding 1.5 mg
Vitamin A: liver, fish, egg yolks, butter, cheese, milk
D (Calciferol)  Important for bone formation, teeth and nervous system. Deficiency symptoms: disturbances in bone and nervous system, bone and teeth deformities (rickets). Special feature: The body can also make vitamin D itself: When exposed to UV light, the conversion to active vitamin D in the skin occurs.  5 mg (200 IU) Infants 10 mg (400 IU)
aged 65 and over: 10 mg (400 IU)
Salmon, sardines, herring, cod liver oil, mushrooms
 E (Tocopherol) Radical scavengers, important for cell protection and immune defense. Deficiency symptoms: weakening of the immune system, prolonged deficiency disorder of the nervous system  12-14 mg (18-21 IE) Breastfeeding 17 mg (25 IU) Vegetable oils, salsify, nuts
 K (Phylloquinone)  Important for the formation of blood coagulation factors and bone. Deficiency symptoms: bleeding disorders, delayed blood clotting. 60-80 mg
From 50 years of age: 65-80 mg
Green vegetables, cabbage, lettuce

Water-soluble vitamins

Vitamin Function / Defect / Particularities Recommended daily intake The main sources
B1 (Thiamine) Important for energy metabolism and nervous system. Feature: Increased need for increased energy supply and in chronic alcohol abuse. Deficiency symptoms: disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism, muscle atrophy, neurological disorders. 1.0-1.3 mg
Pregnant 1.2mg
Breastfeeding 1.4 mg
Pork, liver, whole grain bread and cereal products, potatoes, legumes
B2 (Riboflavin) Important for many biochemical reactions. Deficiency symptoms: stunted growth, scaly skin, inflammation of the skin (mouth lacerations) 1.2-1.5 mg
Pregnant 1.5mg
Breastfeeding 1.6 mg
Milk and dairy products, meat, fish, eggs, mushrooms
B6 (Pyridoxine) Important in many enzymatic processes, especially in amino acid metabolism, the nervous system, the immune system and blood formation. Deficiency symptoms: scaly dermatitis, neurological disorders. 1.2-1.5 mg
Pregnant and nursing mothers 1.9 mg
Poultry and pork, fish, legumes, potatoes, avocados, bananas, bread, whole grain cereal products
B12
(Cobalamin)
Important for the formation of blood and the function of folic acid. 3 mg pregnant and lactating women 3.5 and 4.0 mg Especially animal foods (liver, lean meat, fish, eggs, cheese, milk), sauerkraut
Biotin Important for the amino acid degradation and fatty acid biosynthesis. Deficiency symptoms: dermatitis, weakness, fatigue, muscle pain, loss of appetite, nausea. 30 to 60 mg Liver, egg yolk, nuts, oats, sardines, cauliflower, mushrooms
Folic acid Important for cell division, cell regeneration and blood formation, generally for growth and development. Deficiency symptoms: oral lesions, diarrhea, decreased antibody formation, anemia 400 mg Pregnant and nursing mothers 600 mg Strawberries, leafy vegetables, spinach, lettuce, cabbage, asparagus, corn, legumes
Niacin Important for the development and breakdown of carbohydrates, fatty acids and amino acids. Deficiency symptoms: skin and mucosal lesions, mental disorders Women 13 mg
Men 15-17 mg
Pregnant 15 mg
Breastfeeding 17mg 
Meat, offal, fish, eggs, milk
Pantothenic Important for the reduction in nutrients and fatty acid synthesis. Deficiency symptoms are unknown. 6 mg Included in nearly all foods
Vitamin C
(Ascorbic acid)
Important as the reducing agent, as a scavenger for the immune system, as a cold protection and also for the recovery of vegetable iron. Deficiency symptoms: fatigue, tiredness, joint and limb pain, loss of power, bleeding of the mouth and gums, tooth loss, depression, poor wound healing, susceptibility to infections, scurvy 100 mg
Pregnant 110mg
Breastfeeding 150 mg
Fruits and vegetables (kiwi, orange, sea buckthorn, peppers, potatoes, cabbage), fruit juices, salads, herbs

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